Background: Risk factors for cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in renal transplant recipients
have been evaluated in industrialized countries with relatively low CMV seroprevalence.
Objectives: We aimed to determine which factors are related to this illness in a high CMV
Patients and Methods: A case-control study was performed with data from a 5-year follow-up
of 260 kidney transplant recipients at our center. Odds ratios were calculated using the
Results: A total of 25 cases of CMV disease occurred during the study period. Recipient age
greater than 55 years old (odds ratio: 4.95, 95% CI: 1.44–17.0) and use of thymoglobulin
(odds ratio: 4.84; 95% CI: 1.10–21.39) were the only independent predictors for CMV
disease. There was not any relationship between the previous serologic status of both donor
and receptor and the occurrence of CMV disease. We did not observe any association
between the immunosuppressive regimens and CMV disease, except for thymoglobulin.
Conclusions: Only recipient age and thymoglobulin administration were related to CMV
disease. Further studies are needed to determine if prophylactic treatment confers clinical
benefit in this subset of patients.