Background: Bladder cancer is a serious global problem. Although the risk factors of bladder
cancer have been found through many studies, the effect of them on the grade of this
cancer has not been focused previously.
Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the association of some risk factors of
urothelial bladder cancer on its grade.
Patients and Methods: The patients with proved diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of bladder
were enrolled in this study. They were divided into case group (those with high-grade
bladder cancer) and control group (those with low-grade bladder cancer). Each of case and
control groups contained 103 patients. Age, gender, place of residence, cigarette smoking
state, opium consumption state, occupation, previous exposure to poisons or chemicals,
and family history of bladder cancer were compared between the case and control groups.
Results: Eighty-two patients (79.6%) of the case group and 87(84.5%) of the control group
were male. The mean age of the case group was significantly higher than control group
(66.1±11.8 and 61.7±14.2, respectively; P=0.003). The results of this study showed
that ever usage of opium was significantly higher in the case group (OR=2.97; 95% CI:
1.64- 5.38; P <0.001). Although mean pack-years of cigarette smoking of case group was
significantly higher than control group in univariate analysis (P=0.009), it was omitted
from regression models when multivariate analysis was applied.
Conclusions: High grade urothelial bladder cancer has been significantly associated with
opium usage and older ages