ISSN: 2251-8363    eISSN: 2251-8819  
J Nephropathol. 2018;7(3):158-165.
doi:10.15171/jnp.2018.35

Original Article

Nephrotoxic effects of low-dose zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats

Layasadat Khorsandi 1,2, Abbas Heidari -Moghadam 1,3 * , Zahra Jozi 3

1 Student Research Committee, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Cell and Molecular Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
*Corresponding author: Abbas Heidari-Moghadam, Ph.D, Email: abbass.heidari@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: The use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZNPs) in various products such as biosensors, sunscreens and nourishment added substances is increasing.

Objectives: In the present work the impacts of ZNP on kidney of rats was explored.

Materials and Methods: In this experimental study male Wistar rats were used. Trial groups received 5, 50 and 300 mg/kg ZNP (ZNP-1 to ZNP-3) for 2 weeks. Control group received only normal saline. blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and uric acid were considered as biomarkers to indicate nephrotoxicity. To evaluate the oxidative stress in the kidney, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzymes activity were measured. Histopathological and apoptotic cell death was also evaluated in renal tissues.

Results: Blood density of zinc (Zn) was significantly increased in the low dose-treated rats. Concentration of Zn in the renal tissue was significantly increased in the high dose treated rats. Weight of kidney was significantly elevated in both ZNP-1 and ZNP-2 groups. ZNP resulted in a significant increment in MDA content in the low measurements and a critical reduction in the activity of the SOD and GPx enzymes. Exposure of ZNP at low dose
induced a significant elevation in blood concentration of BUN, Cr and uric acid. Treatment with low dose of ZNP caused a significant increase in histological changes and apoptotic index. ZNP at the high dose induced poor nephrotoxicity.

Conclusion: In conclusion, ZNP has dose-dependent nephrotoxic effects on rats and lower doses have more toxic action.

Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:

In this study we demonstrated that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZNPs) dose-dependently induced nephrotoxicity by elevation blood biochemical markers and generation of stress oxidative. ZNPs dose-dependently induced structural changes and increased apoptosis in renal tissue. Lower doses of this nanoparticle have more nephrotoxicity effects. The results of this study highlighted the requirement for alert during the utilization of ZNPs to prevent health impacts.

Please cite this paper as: Khorsandi L, Heidari-Moghadam A, Jozi Z. Nephrotoxic effects of low-dose zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats. J Nephropathol. 2018;7(3):158-165. DOI: 10.15171/jnp.2018.35.

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Submitted: 18 Mar 2017

Accepted: 26 Aug 2017
First published online: 08 Sep 2018
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