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J Nephropathol. 2017;6(4): 356-358.
doi: 10.15171/jnp.2017.58

Scopus ID: 85036580179
  Abstract View: 1838
  PDF Download: 833

Original Article

The level of urinary endothelin in patients with urinary reflux

Anoush Azarfar 1, Mohammad Esmaeeli 1, Mitra Naseri 1, Shapour Badiee Aval 2, Fatemeh Ghanee Sharbaf 1, Sahar Ravanshad 3, Yalda Ravanshad 4 * , Hassan Mehrad-Majd 4, Sara Molkara 1

1 Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
2 Acupuncture Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
3 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
4 Clinical Research Unit, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
*Corresponding author: Yalda Ravanshad, Ravanshady@mums.ac.ir

Abstract

Background: In different tissues, the endothelin is produced by vascular endothelium.
They are potent vasoconstrictor peptides. There is a little information about the role of
endothelin in reflux nephropathy.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate urinary levels of endothelin in patients with
vesicoureteral reflux (VUR).


Patients and Methods:
It was a cross-sectional study that conducted on 81 children who
received voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG). Based on VCUG reports, patients were
divided into two groups; with reflux (40 persons) and without reflux (41 persons). We got
a urine sample from patients with mid-stream or urine bag method. The endothelin level
was assessed with ELISA immunoassay. Data was analyzed using SPSS 16.

Results: Based on VCUG reports, 40 patients (49.4%) had urinary reflux, of them 20 cases
suffered from unilateral urinary reflux and others from bilateral. Of 40 patients with
reflux, 23 cases (57.5% of reflux group) had kidney scar and seven individuals (17.5%) had
abnormal kidney sonography. Of patients with urinary reflux, 13 cases (32.5%) had grade1
urinary reflux, 8 cases (20%) grade 2, and 5 cases (12.5%) grade 3 and finally 14 cases
(35%) grade 4. The UET-1 levels were significantly higher in VUR patients compared to
the control group (P < 0.001). Comparison of mean endothelin levels between two groups
was done using Mann-Whitney U test and was statistically significance (P < 0.001). We
used Kruskal-Wallis for comparison of endothelin levels in different grades of reflux
(P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Urine endothelin-1 level can be considered as an alternative to VCUG for
screening vesicourethral reflux.

Keywords: Reflux, Endothelin, Voiding cystourethrography, Chronic renal failure, Vesicoureteral reflux

Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:

Urine endothelin-1 level can be considered as an alternative to VCUG for screening VUR. According to significant changes in
the different grades of reflux, it is helpful in determining the severity of VUR. It can at least prevent performing unnecessary
VCUG in low-risk patients.

Please cite this paper as: Azarfar A, Esmaeeli M, Naseri M, Badiee Aval S, Ghanee Sharbaf F, Ravanshad S, et al. The level of
urinary endothelin in patients with urinary reflux. J Nephropathol. 2017;6(4):356-358. DOI: 10.15171/jnp.2017.58.

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Submitted: 10 Mar 2017
Accepted: 15 Jun 2017
ePublished: 29 Jun 2017
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