J Nephropathol. 2018;7(2): 69-73.
doi: 10.15171/jnp.2018.17

Scopus ID: 85046001589
  Abstract View: 3376
  PDF Download: 1615

Original Article

Opium and grade of urothelial bladder cancer

Shahryar Zeighami 1, Entegham Azizzadeh 2, Hamid Reza Tabatabaee 3, Ali Adib 4, Amir Hossein Babaei 4, Ali Ariafar 1*

1 Urology Oncology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
2 Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran
3 Epidemiology Department, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
4 Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
*Corresponding Author: *Corresponding author: Ali Ariafar, , Email: ariafara@sums.ac.ir


Background: Bladder cancer is a serious global problem. Although the risk factors of bladder cancer have been found through many studies, the effect of them on the grade of this cancer has not been focused previously.

Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the association of some risk factors of urothelial bladder cancer on its grade.

Patients and Methods: The patients with proved diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of bladder were enrolled in this study. They were divided into case group (those with high-grade bladder cancer) and control group (those with low-grade bladder cancer). Each of case and control groups contained 103 patients. Age, gender, place of residence, cigarette smoking state, opium consumption state, occupation, previous exposure to poisons or chemicals, and family history of bladder cancer were compared between the case and control groups.

Results: Eighty-two patients (79.6%) of the case group and 87(84.5%) of the control group were male. The mean age of the case group was significantly higher than control group (66.1±11.8 and 61.7±14.2, respectively; P=0.003). The results of this study showed that ever usage of opium was significantly higher in the case group (OR=2.97; 95% CI: 1.64- 5.38; P <0.001). Although mean pack-years of cigarette smoking of case group was significantly higher than control group in univariate analysis (P=0.009), it was omitted from regression models when multivariate analysis was applied.

Conclusions: High grade urothelial bladder cancer has been significantly associated with opium usage and older ages

Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:

Bladder cancer, as the first most common cancer of genitourinary system, is still a serious global problem. Opium, after tobacco, is the second most abused drug in the world. Unfortunately, there is a wrong traditional opinion that it is useful for health. Based on our results, opium is associated with high grade bladder cancer. Hence, it is necessary that opium use prevention be as a part of health policy making. opium users should be educated about bladder cancer and its clinical manifestations for early diagnosis and prevention of disease progression.

Please cite this paper as: Zeighami S, Azizzadeh E, Tabatabaee HR, Adib A, Babaei AH, Ariafar A. Opium and grade of urothelial bladder cancer. J Nephropathol. 2018;7(2):69-73. DOI: 10.15171/jnp.2017.17.

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Submitted: 18 May 2017
Accepted: 23 Sep 2017
ePublished: 26 Oct 2017
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